One Health Anthem

One Health Anthem

The One Health Club of the University of the University of Nairobi have developed a One Health Anthem as below:

“We are one health,
A multidisciplinary society,
Bound together by a love for Africa,

A free Africa, free from disease, hunger and war,

Ooh Africa my home my love my peace my joy,

Eee one health ,
we aspire for quality products ,quality animals and a healthy people free from diseases free from hunger and free from war.

So let’s hold hands fight for each other not against each other we can do this if only we believe.

Coz Africa our home our love our peace and our joy,
Together let’s work for Africa.
Yeah .
One health one people one universe.”

The audio version is also available here:

Credits to Isaac Karuri, Dorothy Gaunye, Topirian Kerempe, Susan Mutuku, Simel Silau, Emonje Henry & Alice Kiarie for creating the audio version.

 

Conquest of Ebola in Humans and Animals

Conquest of Ebola in Humans and Animals

“Conquest of Ebola in Humans and Animals” by Thomas P. Monath, MD…. highlights:

  1. The use of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), a virus causing infection and disease in animals (cattle, horses, and pigs), as the backbone for construction of a human Ebola vaccine is certainly noteworthy in the context of One Health, although there are analogous examples (e.g. vaccinia).
  2. Like other zoonoses this disease exemplifies many principles of One Health.
  3. Now that the control of human Ebola virus disease appears to be close at hand through the use of a vaccine, extension to animal species affected by this disease is the next horizon. Reaching that goal will require close collaboration across the medical and veterinary fields, ecologists, conservation scientists, and others in the One Health community.

http://www.onehealthinitiative.com/news.php?query=Conquest+of+Ebola+in+Humans+and+Animals+-+December+23%2C+2016

The EU report on trends &sources of zoonoses, zoonotic agents and food-borne outbreaks in 2015

The EU report on trends &sources of zoonoses, zoonotic agents and food-borne outbreaks in 2015

“This report of EFSA and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control presents the results of the zoonoses monitoring activities carried out in 2015 in 32 European countries (28 Member States (MS) and four non-MS). Campylobacteriosis was the most commonly reported zoonosis and the increasing European Union (EU) trend for confirmed human cases since 2008 continued. In food, the occurrence of Campylobacter remained high in broiler meat. The decreasing EU trend for confirmed human salmonellosis cases since 2008 continued, but the proportion of human Salmonella Enteritidis cases increased. Most MS met their Salmonella reduction targets for poultry. More S. Enteritidis isolates were reported and S. Infantis was confirmed as the most frequent serovar isolated from domestic fowl. In foodstuffs, the EU level Salmonella non-compliance for minced meat and meat preparations from poultry was low. Despite the significant increasing trend since 2008, the number of human listeriosis cases stabilised in 2015. In ready-to-eat foods, Listeria monocytogenes seldom exceeded the EU food safety limit. The decreasing EU trend for confirmed yersiniosis cases since 2008 continued. Positive findings for Yersinia were mainly reported in pig meat and products thereof. The number of confirmed shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infections in humans was similar to 2014. In food, STEC was most frequently reported in meat from ruminants. A total of 4,362 food-borne outbreaks, including waterborne outbreaks, were reported. Bacteria were the most commonly detected causative agents, followed by bacterial toxins, viruses, other causative agents and parasites. The causative agent remained unknown in 33.5% of all outbreaks. As in previous years, Salmonella in eggs continued to represent the highest risk agent/food combination. The report further summarises trends and sources for tuberculosis due to Mycobacterium bovis, Brucella, Trichinella, Echinococcus, Toxoplasma, rabies, Coxiella burnetii (Q fever), West Nile virus and tularaemia.”

Source: http://ecdc.europa.eu/en/publications/Publications/EU-summary-report-trends-sources-zoonoses-2015.pdf

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Click image to view the report

How an ‘urban zoo’ project in Kenya is helping unpack the spread of disease

How an ‘urban zoo’ project in Kenya is helping unpack the spread of disease

Eric Fèvre, University of Liverpool

There are fears that Africa’s next major modern disease crisis will emerge from its cities. Like Ebola, it may well originate from animals. Understanding where it would come from and how this could happen is critical to monitoring and control.

Growth and migration are driving huge increases in the number of people living in Africa’s urban zones. More than half of Africa’s people are expected to live in cities by 2030, up from about a third in 2007.

The impact of this high rate of urbanisation on issues like planning, economics, food production and human welfare has received considerable attention. But there hasn’t been a substantive effort to address the effects on the transmission of the organisms – pathogens – that cause disease. This is despite several influential reports linking urbanisation to the risk of emerging infectious diseases.

Africa’s cities are melting pots of activity and interaction. Formal and informal trading take place side by side. The wealthy live alongside the poor, livestock alongside people and waste is poorly disposed of near food production areas.

This degree of mixing and contact creates an opportune ecological setting for pathogen transmission for a variety of bugs. Already approximately 60% of human pathogens are zoonotic. This means that three out of five human diseases are transmitted from animals. Scientists predict that this is set to increase and that about 80% of new pathogens will have zoonotic origins.

Emerging infectious diseases are a major concern to the global public health community, both in terms of disease burden and economic burden. Understanding the processes that lead to their emergence is therefore a scientific research priority.

Over the last five years I have been working with a group of researchers to understand what leads to the introduction of pathogens in urban environments and how those then emerge in the human population.

Tracking the next disease

Investigating the pathogens we already know about can help us understand the mechanisms and processes that underlie the emergence of new pathogens.

The questions that need to be addressed are:

  • what is it about urban environments that might predispose to an emergence event, and
  • what is the relevance of livestock as reservoirs of potentially emerging pathogens in these environments?

What’s been lacking from a public health perspective are studies linking wider ecological systems – such as intensive farming systems – to disease emergence and human social organisation. Also missing are studies that investigate the diversity of micro-organisms at a genetic level in these settings – a field called microbial genetics. This kind of research is not often undertaken on a meaningful scale.

The work that we’ve been doing in Kenya’s capital Nairobi aims to go some way towards plugging this gap.

Urban zoo project

Our Urban Zoo project, funded by the UK Medical Research Council and other UK research councils, has focused on livestock as a major source of emerging zoonotic diseases. This is a critical interface as 40% of known livestock pathogens (200 species) can infect humans.

We’ve been taking a landscape genetics approach to understand how urban populations connect to livestock. This means we study the pathogens and their hosts from an ecological perspective. It’s a fascinating way to do science on a big scale. We investigate humans in different socio-economic groups, the peri-domestic wildlife that live around them, the livestock they keep and the livestock that feed them.

Our method of choice is to explore the diversity of the bacterium Escherichia coli as an exemplar. E. coli is an excellent microbe to study for this purpose. It is zoonotic, exists in many hosts and in the environment, and can be found in food products of animal origin.

We have also been:

  • Mapping animal source food systems – in both the formal and informal sectors – that bring food to city residents
  • Trying to understand human relationships with livestock in the city itself. This is a social science and economic approach that explores why people keep animals and how they contribute to their livelihoods
  • Factoring in public health, environmental, social and ecological characterisation of the city. For example, we’ve mapped low income neighbourhoods using cameras on hot air balloons to see how food sellers are distributed in a bacteria-rich environment

As a global scientific community, and as providers of evidence to those who make policy, we need to be able to explain the mechanisms behind issues such as this. Only when we have achieved this will the risk of disease emergence in these settings be relevant to those responsible for mitigating its occurrence. The risks must be balanced against the benefits of allowing city environments to provide a livelihood for their residents.

The Conversation

Eric Fèvre, Professor of Veterinary Infectious Diseases, University of Liverpool

This article was originally published on The Conversation. Read the original article.

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Urbanization and Disease Emergence: Dynamics at the Wildlife–Livestock–Human Interface

Urbanization and Disease Emergence: Dynamics at the Wildlife–Livestock–Human Interface

An excellent recent review by Hasselle et al., (2016) argues that understanding the form and function of the wildlife-livestock-human interfaces could provide clues on how to mitigate risks of disease emergence.

That shifting focus from the pathogen to the processes underlying emergence and also from single pathogen studies to multi-pathogen studies might facilitate rapid detection of pathogen emergence.

They further point out that anthropogenic influence on ecological systems dictate the level of risk of zoonotic disease emergence as compared to wildlife and domestic animal reservoirs.

From these findings we could certainly conclude that urbanization, especially in developing countries, could be propagating disease emergence especially where we have such intimate wildlife-livestock-human interfaces. Further probing for establishment of “One Health” surveillance systems.

Access the full paper here: 

Hassell, J. M., Begon, M., Ward, M. J., & Fèvre, E. M. (2016). Urbanization and Disease Emergence: Dynamics at the Wildlife–Livestock–Human Interface. Trends in Ecology & Evolution. doi:10.1016/j.tree.2016.09.012

landscapes

How different interfaces interact and drivers propagate disease emergence; Image source: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2016.09.012

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Dr. Kelvin Momanyi

Dr. Kelvin Momanyi

I am a Veterinarian & a part time web designer. My current research is focused on the evidence-based added value & evaluation of One Health.

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MOOC: One Health: Connecting Humans, Animals and the Environment

MOOC: One Health: Connecting Humans, Animals and the Environment

OneHealth course

Please, find below a link to register for a free online course on the concept of One Health starting this November. The educators for the course are:

  • Jakob Zinsstag: Professor of Epidemiology at the Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute and the University of Basel, Switzerland.
  • Esther Schelling: a vet by training and now the leader of the Mobile Populations and Health research group of the Human and Animal Health Studies unit at Swiss TPH. Mainly working in Africa, Asia and Switzerland.
  • Bassirou Bonfoh: Veterinary-Epidemiologist, working in the area of capacity building in One Health by addressing risk analysis and zoonoses control and elimination pathways in Africa.
Click here to register for the course
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Subscribe to receive updates

Follow me on Twitter

Dr. Kelvin Momanyi

Dr. Kelvin Momanyi

I am a Veterinarian & a part time web designer. My current research is focused on the evidence-based added value & evaluation of One Health.

Verified Services

View Full Profile →

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